Indian markets and system of marketing in different ages
Dr. Durgesh Kumar Singh
Contemporary concepts and practices of marketing, and the ideologies which impel these, originate from the social and economic contexts of the West, particularly the United States and Europe (Ellis et al., 2011; Eckhardt et al., 2013). As a consequence of this Western dominance, the marketing discipline became permeated with values such as individualism and rationalism (Ellis et al., 2011). The Eurocentrism of much of marketing theory has resulted in knowledge pertinent to contexts such as India being overlooked (Varman and Saha, 2009; Varman and Sreekumar, 2015). In an early paper that appeared in the Journal of Marketing, Westfall and Boyd, Jr. (1960) suggested that marketing practices in India were not sufficiently ‘developed’, and called for a ‘modernization’ of marketing in India. In response to such criticism, marketing academics in India adopted theories and practices of marketing from the West, especially the US. Not surprisingly, these theories and practices were often far removed from the realities of the Indian economy and consumers (Varman et al., 2011).